Friday, 4 December 2015

My presentations of Sem-2

Comparision of Women character of Sense and sensibility and Middlmarch

16 nidhi from nidhijasani

Comarison of Oliver Twist and Harry Potter

Nidhi,16 from nidhijasani

 Feminism, Diaspora, New Critisim

16 nidhi from nidhijasani

Limitation of Cultural Studies

Thursday, 3 December 2015

My Sem-1 Presentations

Dryden's view on drama blank verse v/s rhyme verse

18 nidhi from nidhijasani

Significans of myth of Ramayana in Kanthapura

18 nidhi from nidhijasani

Gulliver's Travel as satire

Nidhi 18 from nidhijasani

The Metaphisical Poems by John Donne

N from nidhijasani

Monday, 2 November 2015

Mourning Becomes Electra (critical analysis)

Critical Analysis of ‘Mourning becomes Electra’  

Jasani Nidhi

Submitted to: M.K. Bhavnagar University, Department of English

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· Introduction

        ‘Mourning Becomes Electra’ is a play written by American play writer Eugene O’Neil, Published in 26th October 1931, in New York City. Eugene O’Neil was born on October 16, 1888, in New York City(O'Neill). He was the first American play writer who receive Nobel Prize for literature, for his play. He was one of the most admired playwrights of all in their time. His dramatically work are, Anna Christen (1922), his master piece is ‘Long Day’s Journey in to Night. His great plays, including Beyond the Horizon (1920), Strange Interlude (1928), Ah! Wilderness (1933), and the Iceman Cometh (1946).

    The play divided in to three parts, 1. Homecoming, 2.The Hunted and 3.The Haunted. The play is begun with the description of the house. The timing of the play is set at the end of the American civil war, an adaptation of the greatest of the Aeschylus’s trio logy. 
·      Critical Analysis

        The play begins with the description of the Mannon house, it was dark and grayish. It was spring time in the garden of the Mannon. Mannon family is the center of the play. In the play we found that, Brigadier general Ezra Mannon recently comes home from war. Christine Mannon is wife of Ezra, recently she comes from tour. Christine has lover, Adam Brant. He has similar face to Ezra. Their daughter Lavinia knows about her mother love affair with Adam. That’s why she fells jealousy. May be for this reason she hate her mother and think that her father needs her. In homecoming we found that mother and daughter rival for love of Ezra and Adam. In the play when Ezra come home from the war, Lavinia tries to latch his attention towards her, but Ezra first talk and give attention or priority to Christine, as he love her. (Guide)

          Christine cannot give attention to Ezra and only think about her lover. When Ezra has a heart attack, she gives him poison rather than medicine. At the end of the play we found that Orin kill his self with the gun.  Orin gives one envelop to Hazel. Then Lavinia board up the window and throw out all the flowers then she enters in dark library of her father, alone and shut the door. Entire Mannon family died.  Orin in envelop, he writes about the history of entire Mannon family. In which he says that Lavinia is the most interesting criminal of all. She only became pretty like their mother on Bran’s island, with the natives staring at her with desire. The name of Mannon family may be related with ‘Mammon’ and the family’s materialism. All three parts are contains four to five acts. That’s why ‘Mourning Becomes Electra’ is extraordinary lengthy for drama.

          O’Neil said that “By the title Mourning Becomes Electra I should to convey that Mourning befits Electra; it becomes Electra to Mourn; it is her fat; black is becoming to her and it is the color that becomes her destiny.”

          In all his play generally Eugene O’Neil’s play illustrates the struggle between the life and death. And in which human express natural sensual desires and love of other or even of the life is overcome by death. This all things are derives from the puritan religion, death in life connected with society’s values, isolation, war, and physical death. In the play we found all things are dark and grayish colored. Darkness connected with death, pervades the plays: Homecoming for instance, begins with the sunset, moves in to twilight and ends in the dark of night; the hunted takes place at night; the Hinted spans two evening and a late afternoon and dictates the inevitable coming of night, darkness and death as Lavinia retreats to rejoin the host of death Mannon. Here we found that the Mannon house itself seen by audience at the beginning of each play(Baraiya).

           The cure of this house stems from the effects of materialism, puritanism and alienation. From the perspective of material, Mannon are rich. They have all the things they have huge house, how many lives are there. Christine and other family member have material security. But they longing for emotional security. Nobody lives happily in house. When we look at Mannon house we found that there is garden, is barren without flowers. It cannot give pleasure. There is an old man with grey hair, he take care of garden. It shows Mannon house is very old. The house is lifeless, because there are many people living in house but not happily. The shape of the house is like pyramid, it is a kind of grave. Symbolically it shows that it is not house of Mannon but it is a grave of Mannon family. At the end of the play we found that enter Mannon family was died. The color of the house is gray; it symbolized the dullness of family member.

    First part of the play homecoming of General Ezra Mannon from the war. But in actual sense it is not homecoming, going far from the home. He is lucky who come alive from the war but his own family member became weapon for him. Ezra’s wife kills him to giving him poison. Why his wife kills him? She kills her husband because of her love affair with Adam. When Christine needs Ezra, he is not with her. He stays away from 10 year. May be that’s why she love Adam, but they cannot marry because Ezra is alive so she kills Ezra. If Ezra was died they can marry. We found that Adam wants to take revenge of death of her sister, so he developed good relation with Mannon family. We found kind of love triangle among Lavinia, Adam and Christine. One Rison for attraction is the face, face of Ezra and Adam are similar looking. Both mother and daughter want to marry with Adam. Peter love Lavinia but she cannot love him. Here one observation is, Lavinia may be not love him, but she dislike her mother and her mother likes Adam. She feels jealousy towards her mother that if she marries with him she becomes happy.

    Here we found one question that really Christine murder Ezra, giving him poison? May be Ezra becomes more happy looking that Christine taking care of him, and in state of overjoy he died. Suddenly he gets attention from his wife and he cannot bear it so he was died. It is question that who kill him love or poison? In one seen Orin and Lavinia both secretly follows their mother, Christine who goes to meet Adam in east Boston. They listen whole conversation of them. Then Orin shoots Adam, and he died. Orin kill Adam because Christine love Adam, she cannot give attention to him. Orin love his mother, here we found oedipal complex in this play. After all this Christine kills herself. Only two member of Mannon family was left.We found that Orin become Ezra, he looks like Ezra and Lavinia becomes Christine, she looks like Christine. After looking at Lavinia Peter thinks that she is the ghost of Christine. Here Eugene O’Neil put ghostly seen, someone sings a song near to the house, and also dark shadow of someone is shown on the wall of the house. The Mannon family is very famous and people feel proud on them because they are connected with army. Orin as last male member of Mannon family he writes criminal history of Mannon family. Orin also committed suicide after giving envelop to Hazel, she is also important character in the play. Orin told her, she should open it if: 1 something happened to him and 2 Lavinia tries to marry Peter.At the end of the play O’Neil trays to says that the story of Mannon family is going to darkness.

  ·     Conclusion

        In this play we found that he uses symbols frequently and effectively. This play is continuation of the Greek tradition. In this one play he uses two complex “Electra” and “Oedipal”.  Lavinia says that no one is remaining, I will give punishment to myself, and she locked herself in to his father’s library. Mannon house becomes the grave of Mannon family.   

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  • Works Cited

Baraiya, Saeyu. 'the Mourning Becomes Electera'. 4 November 2014. 2015 <>.
Guide, Navigate Study. Mouring Becomes Electra Essay-Critical Eassay. n.d. 2015 <>.
O'Neill, Eugene. Mourning Becomes Electra. New York City, 1931.


English language Satan or Saraswati. English is good or bad?


Topic: English language Satan or Saraswati.
English is good or bad?

Name: Jasani Nidhi 

Submitted to: M.K. Bhavnagar University, Department of English

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Everything in world has two sides. One coin has two part or sides. We found everything has two part god side and bad side. Same thing we found in ‘English Language’, some says it is god and some says it is bad especially in country like India. In India we found so many languages, each stat have their own language. We have one Gujarati idiom or proverb “Bar gave bolibadlai” it means after some distance orremoteness language of people is change. In India we found there is always conflict regarding doable face of English language, is English harmful or helpful?

·    Positive side of English language (English as Saraswati)

The rise of English has mainly taken place in India over the last two or three decades. In present time English become ‘global language’ because in world wild millions of people use it as their native (mother) language and millions of children used to learn English in their school. That is why English is famous language. English became status language among the Indian people. Indian person who know English and speak English is fell superior then other people. English makes us different from other people. English is language of status.
          English language is only medium to communicate with other country. English is international language; rather we can say language of global communication. English is helpful to establishing good relation and communist with other countries. Through English we deeply study and come to know about different background and culture of different country. Through internet we study culture of nay country, every country introduce their culture in English language.Mobile, laptop and any other electric devise we found English is there, without knowing English we can’t operate those devise. In social media we found lots of use of English language, even when we need help of Google or any kind of Google search we need English language. Even one can search in any other language like Hindi or Spanish they must give command to Google only in English though one search for their native language. Google understand only English and this is the biggest advantage of English language. Other advantage of English is, very helpful when we go outside of our native place or out of country. It happened with some of my friends. They go outside, suddenly they forgot their path and they lost in unknown place. They all are varied because on one knows English, and people surround them they only understand English. One of them know little English, with the use of English they reach right place. At that time we can says that English is proved as helper (Saraswati) for them.

          At some point English is became ‘LinguaFranca’. LinguaFranca is Latin word. Dictionary meaning of Linguafranca is ‘a common language consisting of Italian mixed with French, Spanish, and Greek and Arabic that was formally spoken in Mediterranean ports, other is something resembling a common language (- Merriam Webster). In very simple way linguafranca is language which is used as common among people, and English is linking language. The term linguafranca becomes so common that it continued to be used for any ‘universal’ language. English is became global linguafranca.

          English is thread language of communication in trade and business. Through English we do successful baseness outside of our country, and urn more and more money. English is the best helper for doing baseness in other country. During mid-twentieth century many colonies and country became independent, they take English as their official or semi-official language.  English is the language of all kind of field like, commerce, economy, politics, science and technology, and all kind of knowledge is available in English language. More than 80% people use English for academic and social purpose. English is the most spoken language, with use of this language one can communicate with people of any country. Now days we found that any kind of forms whether it is academic, official, governmental, banking and any kind of form are in English.Without knowing English how one can fill those forms, for filling the form we need English language.
          Why English is global language? Because it is the language we found everywhere, here and read every day, even in packaging of small chocolate. People used to send their children in English medium school. English is most spread over world wild and most spoken language.  Number of country in the even through Hindi, Chinese Spanish and many other have number of native speakers speaks in English language. There is so many advantage of English language.
·    Negative side of English language ( English as Satan)

        English language is good but we found there is bad side of English. First I would like to say that English is language of colonialism. We found bad impact on native speaker and native language also. At some point we found that class discrimination, a person who speaks in English language in regular life they feel that they are superior then non English speaker people. There is lack of appropriate word, how one can introduce their culture through English. There are linguistic gapes. Because there is some words only used in native language, there are not found in English. For example a word like “khichdi” is not found in English language, there are so many Indian words are not available in English. So how one can truly expresses and introduces their culture without knowing proper word of the cultural or native word, and how one can understand this kind of word without context or meaning of the word. Sometime person feel ‘poor’ when it comes to expresses their feeling, ideas and emotion in English language, they don’t know proper word in English for the word of their native language. When reading any kind of English writing sometimes one cannot understand or found appropriate meaning of the word, so it create lack of pleasure, sometime cannot rich to original meaning of the word and paragraph. That’s why one can’t get pleasure. When any little child (other language speaker) sends to study in English medium school, at that time child became confuse. Child has to give more attention and concentration on other language. Because of giving attention to that, sometime creativeness of the child is died. From this perspective English is killer of the creativity of children.
          English as global language is good but some question is raised up in my mind that which English is used as global language. There is American English and British English. We found spellings of some words are different and some pronunciation of word are different, for example spelling of “colour” is not right in American English, it is not accepted in computer also, for this the right spelling of the word is “color”, at this state one became confused that which one is right and which one is wrong. Because when we wright word “color” in exam paper is wrong, when we type “colour” is wrong, there are so many word like this word.We also found some grammatical errors or mistake and vocabulary difference(Wikipedia, English as global language).
 So it is big question that which English is correct English, that’s why it is difficult to accept English as global language (which English is original English? Which English is used as global language?).
          At some point we found English is assassination or destroyer language of other languages. English became popular among people, so native speaker used to speak in English, that’s why importance of native language is go down. English makes other language unnecessary, it make people unwilling or unable to learn other language. People think that they use English only so no need to learn other language. There is a different between death of language and murder of language, death of language means language itself is going to died (language is disappears naturally)  whereas killing of language means with the more use of one language and other language is not in much use that’s why gradually language is dead. For example in India ‘Sanskrit’ is going to death and with the use of English language much other Indian language is killed like Hindi, Gujarati and many other (almost died). Now days we found that native language is almost remove form the news, social media also from education system.
·      Conclusion

Here some good and some wicked part of English language. For sum-up we can says that it is very difficult task to find out negative side of English language, but there are bad part of English. At some level English is as global language is god but in some point English is not good. English is helpful to understand what American or foreign think about us. Through studying English Gandhi and other freedom fighter defeat British people, because one must defeat person through knowing their language. English became weapon to fight with British people(Wikipedia, English language British). It is useful to fill up any kind of forms and many other things.

Sometime people cannot understand word properly and create misunderstanding. People need other peoples help to feel up the forms, sometime they feel sham that’s why they cannot understand what is it and give wrong information. We found there lots of good side and bad side of English language. I found that there is good or positive side of English more than negative or bad side of English. In short English is helpful and useful language. 

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Works Cited

wikipedia. english as global languade. n.d. 2015 <(>.
—. English language Brithish. 2015. 2015 <( 2005)>.


Saturday, 31 October 2015

Feminism in to the Lighthouse

Topic: Feminism in ‘To the Lighthouse’ 
Paper: 9
Paper Name: The Modernist Literature 
Name: JasaniNidhi R.
Roll No.: 16
Class: M.A. Sem.3
Year: 2014-2015
P.G. Enrolment No: 14101018
Submitted to: M.K. Bhavnagar University, Department of English

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          Virginia Woolf was pure feminists. She was born in 1882. Virginia has huge family, and she is youngest daughter of large family. Her father name was Leslie Stephen, he was critic and philosopher, and he was very famous in Victorian England. Virginia also gets something from her father as heritage. Her father have rich library, that’s why she used to read book from it. Virginia also get chance to meet great writers like Thomas Hardy, William Thackeray and many other. She get chance to listen her father scholarly talk with that great person. Her mother’s name was Julia Stephen; she was the daughter of William Makepeace Thackeray. In childhood teacher come to her home for teach her, she did not used to go to school. At that time she think that why her father denied her to get formal education like men. She think that ‘Why I can’t go to school?’ Virginia and her brother Thoby, both are member of well known ‘Bloomsbury Group’. The Bloomsbury group was known as notorious group. Aestheticism and feminism are main idea of this group. Her sister Vanessa was painter. She paint cover page of the Virginia’s book or novel. Virginia marred with Leonard Woolf. He was taking care of her and appreciates her extra-ordinary talent. She committed suicide by drawing herself in a river (1941). Virginia was well read and knowledgeable person, elegant style. In Virginia’s novel we found an intellectual commitment to political, social and feminist principles.
· What is feminism?
In feminism we found that women should have economic, political and social equality with men. Term feminism is refers to political movement and right to vote for woman. We found that not only woman but anyone can be feminists like men and women, girl and boy. This term also can be called as a feminist movement. This movement and feminists are demand men and women all are equal without any kind of boundary. Feminists appeal for equality and freedom for women. The feminist critic wants to explain gape the gender gap, men are superior to women. We found huge gender gap among man and woman. This movement is known women’s liberation movement, and women’s right to vote.
The first feminist book was ‘A vindication of the right of women’ by Mary Wollstonecraft. The term feminism is adopted world widely and socially also. Feminism is “The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes. And another one is organized activity on behalf of women’s rights and interest. This term was first used in 1895.” (According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary) At some point feminism have not any ‘fundamental definition’, it is in very wilder sense. It draws attention to women’s issues in men mad society. In short reading of any kind of book with perspective of women is known as feminist reading of the book.
·      Feminism in Virginia’s other work. (her quotation) 
Generally in Virginia Woolf book we found intellectual commitment to political, social, economic and feminist principles. She writes about suffering of women in patriarchal culture especially British patriarchy. Virginia found that omitted by men from being the maker of these masterpieces, so she created for women a female liberation in “A room of one’s own” (1929). In her short story “A society” (1920), she write about a group of women who join together to investigate the masculine world. She was very famous, active and interested writer of feminist question. She portrayed different type of women in various backgrounds. She also gives many interesting quotation in her different books. Like, “Women must have money and room of her own if she is to write fiction” “Once she knows how to read there’s only one thing you can teach her to believe in herself.” “The history of men’s opposition to women’s emancipation is more interesting perhaps than the story of emancipation itself.” “It is fatal to be mam or woman pure and simple: one must be a woman manly or a man womanly.
·      Feminism in To the Lighthouse
When we refer history, we found that women have to straggle for free themselves from the boundary of men, culture and religion. Women try to get space in literature also. In 'To the Lighthouse’ we found two female characters Mrs. Caroline Ramsay and Lily Briscoe. The character of Mrs. Ramsay and Lily Briscoe portray these demanding roles. Both are totally differing from each other(Pinkney).
·      Character of Lily Briscoe
Lily was guest at Ramsay family’s summer house. She is single; she is in her thirty-three. She is painter and free minded woman. She played role as a truly liberated female artist. Lily is representative of pure feminist woman who change male dominated society to get (achieve) a sense of individuality. She wants to live her life alone. In the novel we found that Charles Tensely who says that ‘women cannot write and women cannot paint’ Lily tries to prove that woman can paint. Through write this novel Virginia proves that woman can write and through creating the character of Lily Briscoe she prove that woman can paint. Lily finished painting at the end of the novel, she demonstrate herself as a truly liberated female artist. Lily was rule breaker, she has desire to stay away from conventional female culture norms and stereotypes of male dominated society. Lily maintain her status as medal age young woman, who valued artistic achievement over the prospect of marriage, it is difficult to maintain. The burden to conform to specific female gender roles weighs heavily upon her conscious: “Even while looked at the mass, at the line, at the color, at Mrs. Ramsay sitting in the window with the James, she kept a feeler on her surroundings lest someone should creep up and suddenly she would find her picture looked at(Feminism in To the lighthouse essays).”

          Lily faces many problems and suffers from a typical male dominated society, her desire to pursue art or painting as a vocation because she is woman, and we found male prejudice upon woman. In novel we found that she peak paintbrush instead of needle. She was aware about gender stereotypes. Lily doesn’t marry in her life. Lily has confident on her art and painting. In this novel Lily’s art is essentially metaphorical a radical political statement of feminism ideals. Lily is unable to obtain an empowering sense of female liberation. Lily finished the painting at the end of the novel; the first section emphasizes sense of self as an artist and as a woman living in world ruled by men. In the novel she is outsider of the family. Lily drowns a painting of Mrs. Ramsay sitting in the openly transparent window of the cottage with James, her youngest son and doing knitting. They both have their portrait painted by Lily, looking at them through the window from position outside on the law(Feminism in To the lighthouse essays).
          Here we can says that Virginia create character of Lily as young woman and free woman with art of painting. At one point Lily’s painting is actually painted by Virginia herself. When we look at painting what we found in painting, is the framing of the other woman. In painting what Mrs. Ramsay is doing? She doing very typical household work like, taking care of James and knitting. We can say that Virginia cannot give free spas to Mrs. Ramsay, even in painting also. In this novel we found clash of gender ideologies much of the novel and Virginia emphasizes a subversion of traditional female gender roles through character of Lily Briscoe. In novel we found struggle to obtain and assert female autonomy is constantly threatened or undermined by a society built upon patriarchy or male dominated society.
·      Character of Mrs. Ramsay 

Mrs. Caroline Ramsay is very beautiful, charming and nurturing character. She is loving and caring wife of Mr. Ramsay. She is thread of Ramsay family; she holds all Ramsay family together. In novel we found that she is like very typical Indian woman, who wake up early in the morning, go into kitchen, make breakfast for family member. She like to decorating dining table. She used to serving delicious food to family member and guest also, she believes in hospitality. She wants to remain present in mind of family member. In chapter-1 she is alive, but even in chapter-2 after her death Mrs. Ramsay remain central character. Everybody in family remembers (miss) her a lot through the novel. In the chapter -3 we found that Lily revisited her memories related with Mrs. Ramsay, and makes harmony with her ghost (memory). She recalls what Mrs. Ramsay tall her about marriage and she also remember her one sentence, ‘close the door and open the window’.
          We found that Mrs. Ramsay is character, who is constantly present not only as worldly presence but also in the mind of the family members. She takes all responsibility of family. In novel we found that when she asked for money from Mr. Ramsay ask her question. She is not economically free woman; she must have to give falsify or record of the money, sometime he refuse to give. But she cannot give counterpoint to her husband; she is perfect housewife or homemaker. It is very difficult to maintain both husband and her son James. Sometime James became angry that his mother cannot give attention to him, she only talk and love my father.
·      Conclusion
There is so many things related with feminism are found in novel, this is only fling view of it. We also found Virginia try to connect Greek mythology in the book. In Greek goddess are in center. Here we compare character of Mrs. Ramsay with three Greek mythical characters like Rhea, Demeter and Persephone. Mrs. Ramsay is symbol of female principal in her life. Many women in novel either or silently subvert conventional female gender roles. We found that the three daughter of Mrs. Ramsay's daughter silently reject the life that their mother chose for her. They want to live their life as Lily live.

Works Cited

Feminism in To the light house essays. 31 December 1969. 31 October 2015 <>.
Pinknry, Makiko Minow. Virginia Woolf and the Problem of the subject. 1. America: Edinburgh Uinivercity press, 2010.

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key terms of Postcolonial studys

Topic: Key Term of Post – Colonialism
Paper: 11
Paper Name: Post – Colonial literature
Name: JasaniNidhi R.
Roll No.: 16
Class: M.A. Sem.3
Year: 2014-2015
P.G. Enrolment No: 14101018
Submitted to: M.K. Bhavnagar University, Department of English

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·    Introduction
What is post- colonialism? Before we understand post- colonialism, we must know about what is colonialism? And what is colonial literature? Colonialism is all about relationship of control and influence over its margins or colonies. These relations are extended to social, pedagogical, economic, political relation between colonies and colonizer. Colonialism is all about study of marginalia. European educated, elite class forming layers between the European nation and the various indigenous people who were controlled. System carried within it inherent notions of racial inferiority and exotic otherness.
          Post colonialism is come after colonialism. It is the main study of effect of colonialism on cultures and society. It’s deal with the how European nations controls the “Third world country” and it’s culture. Post-colonial, as both body and of theory and study of political and cultural change has gone and continues to go through three broad stages:
1)   An initial awareness of the social, psychological, and cultural inferiority enforced by being in a colonized state.
2)   The struggle for ethnic, culture, and political autonomy.
3)   A growing awareness of culture overlap and hybridity.
Post-colonial literature is typical characterized by its opposition to the colonial. Some critic have argued that any literature gives or shows an opposite to colonialism, may be defined as postcolonial. Simon During argues for more inclusive definition, calling it “The need, in nations or groups which have been victim of imperialism to achieve an identity uncontaminated by Universalist or Eurocentric concepts or images(Young).
·       Anti-Colonialism
The term anti-colonialism is an act of political struggle of colonized people against the specific ideology and practice of colonialism. Anti-colonialist movements often expressed themselves in the appropriation and subversion of forms borrowed from the institution of the colonizer and turned back on them. We found discourse of anti- colonial nationalism was focused and demand for an independent postcolonial nation or state. Anti-colonialism associated with an ideology of racial liberation. In the second half of the 20th century anti-colonialism was often articulated in terms of radical, Marxist discourse of liberation, and inconstraction that sought to reconcile the internationalist and anti- elitist demands of Marxism with the nationalist sentiments of the period, in the work and theory or early national liberationist thinkers such as  C.J.R. James, Amilcar Cabral and Frantz Fanon. Anti-colonial frequently perceived resistance to be the product of a fixed and definitive relationship in which colonizer and colonized were in absolute and implacable opposition. Anti-colonialism is related with Marxist.
·     Magical realism
In post-colonial literature we generally found that many writer uses this term in their writing. In this method of literature in describing the imaginary life of indigenous cultures that experience the mythical, magical, and supernatural in decidedly different fashion from western one. In book of Rushdie he uses this magic realism, in his book ‘Midnight’s Children’ he uses this term. It connected with the wonderful, where these two worlds undergo a “closeness or near merging.”
·    Hybridity
It is new transcultural form that arises from cross cultural exchange. It can be social, political, religious, etc. It is not always a peaceful mixture, for it can be contentious and descriptive in its experience. It is cross between two races or two different cultures. There are two definitions as under,
          Catalysis: The experience of several ethnic groups interacting and mixing with each other often in a contentious environment that gives way to new forms of identity and experience.
          Creolization: Societies that arise from a mixture of ethnic and racial mixing to form a new material, psychological and spiritual self-definition(Key terms in post-colonial Theory)
          So, after all we can say it is remix, it means two different things are mixed with each other. For example now a days we are wearing ‘kurta with jeans’ so it is one type of hybridity. We can see it everywhere in fast food, clothes, festivals, marriages, etc.
·     Orientalism
The process by which “the orient” was constructed as an exotic other by European studies and culture. Orientalism is not so much a true study of other cultures as it is broad Western generalization about oriental, Islamic, and/or Asian cultures that tends to erode and ignore their substantial differences.
          It refers to the Orient or East, in contrast to the Occident or West, and often, as seen by the West, often as a form of radical realism. Orient came into English from Middle French orient. Since the 18th century, Orientalist has been the traditional term for a scholar of Oriental studies. In 1978, Edward Said (Palastinian – American) published his influential and controversial book, Orientalism, which “would forever redefine” the word.

The division and classification of human beings by physical and biological characteristics. Race often used by various groups to either maintain power or to stress solidarity. If we can say in simple words so that race is the division, in gujarati we can say ‘Vada’. In our country India we can see different castes for example Brahmin, Kshudra, Vaishy, etc. While in some countries we can find class division and or difference between colors of human beings. For example in animals also we can differentiate that the black cow and white cow. So as same in human beings also color of skin is different. So we can say that difference in human beings are everywhere whether in India, America, Africa, etc. But difference is everywhere. So now let’s know some other term as under,
·     Diaspora
The voluntary enforce or enforced migration of people from their native homelands. Diaspora literature concern with questions of maintaining or altering identity, language, and culture, while in another culture or country.
          The term is derived from Greek word and it means “scattering”. There are many writers who wrote diaspora literature like Salman Rushdie, Sujata Bhatt, JumpaLaheri, etc. These all writers are in home sickness and so they write about their homeland and what they are feeling there. So in this type of literature writer wrote about their country and remembering those days and write poems or any other form of literature about it.
          For example in the movie ‘Swadesh’ we can see that Shahrukh Khan also feel like that and remember his own country. And one song related with it like,

          ‘Ejodesh he teraswadesh he teratuje he pukara…,
          Ejobandhan he jokabhi tut nahisakata, Ejodesh …’
          So in this song also we can feel the feelings of their own country, so it is also like Diaspora literature. And there is another example in movie like ‘Yejavani he Diwani’. In this movie also we can see that the character of Kabir who is also is in this condition. And he is also suffering from homesickness. There is one song related with it as under,
          ‘He fakira man ja, re kabiramanaja…
          Tuti char paivahi, mittikisunaivahi
          Rasta dekhe…’
          So in this song we can understand that how he remembered his country and he feel home sickness.
·      Commonwealth Literature
          Commonwealth literature does not exist by Salman Rushdie but he is one of the key representatives of contemporary commonwealth literature. As a Indian-British novelist, he is world famous for his novel Midnight’s Children (1981) which won the booker prize. Most of his books are set in India and have a particular emphasis on history.
          What is commonwealth? The original phrase “the commonwealth” or “the common weal” comes from the old meaning of “wealth” which is “well-being”. The term literary mean “common well-being”. Commonwealth means British nation and political community founder for the common good. It deals with public welfare. Commonwealth literature has been generally used to refer to the literatures of colonies, former colonies and dependencies of Britain excluding the literature of England, commonly it shows the nationality.
          So, after all we can say that commonwealth literature means master slave relationship. It means inferior nations are in under the powerful nation.

·     Conclusion
          So, after all I want to say that if we understand these all terms so we can easily understand the post-colonial literature. And these all terms are opened our new ideas regarding the literature. And we can find or applying these all terms in literature with its appropriateness. These all terms are like windows in the home through which we get fresh air as same in literature these all terms are like windows through which we can understand literature through new look. So we must have to know these all terms as a student of literature. Otherwise we can’t understand any literature without it.
          So, it’s wonderful experience for me to get understanding about these all terms.

Works Cited

Key terms in post-colonial Theory. n.d.
Young, Robert J c. Postcolonialism (A very short introduction). New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

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Friday, 30 October 2015

My Presentations of Sem-3

Topic; Comparision of Hester with Meera
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comparision between Hester and Meera from nidhijasani

Topic; Absurdity in the play and in the life
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Absurdity in play (waiting for Godot) and Absurdity in life from nidhijasani

Topic;What is Orientalism?
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What is Orieantalism? from nidhijasani

Topic; Role of Institution
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