Saturday, 31 October 2015

Feminism in to the Lighthouse

Topic: Feminism in ‘To the Lighthouse’ 
Paper: 9
Paper Name: The Modernist Literature 
Name: JasaniNidhi R.
Roll No.: 16
Class: M.A. Sem.3
Year: 2014-2015
P.G. Enrolment No: 14101018
Submitted to: M.K. Bhavnagar University, Department of English

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          Virginia Woolf was pure feminists. She was born in 1882. Virginia has huge family, and she is youngest daughter of large family. Her father name was Leslie Stephen, he was critic and philosopher, and he was very famous in Victorian England. Virginia also gets something from her father as heritage. Her father have rich library, that’s why she used to read book from it. Virginia also get chance to meet great writers like Thomas Hardy, William Thackeray and many other. She get chance to listen her father scholarly talk with that great person. Her mother’s name was Julia Stephen; she was the daughter of William Makepeace Thackeray. In childhood teacher come to her home for teach her, she did not used to go to school. At that time she think that why her father denied her to get formal education like men. She think that ‘Why I can’t go to school?’ Virginia and her brother Thoby, both are member of well known ‘Bloomsbury Group’. The Bloomsbury group was known as notorious group. Aestheticism and feminism are main idea of this group. Her sister Vanessa was painter. She paint cover page of the Virginia’s book or novel. Virginia marred with Leonard Woolf. He was taking care of her and appreciates her extra-ordinary talent. She committed suicide by drawing herself in a river (1941). Virginia was well read and knowledgeable person, elegant style. In Virginia’s novel we found an intellectual commitment to political, social and feminist principles.
· What is feminism?
In feminism we found that women should have economic, political and social equality with men. Term feminism is refers to political movement and right to vote for woman. We found that not only woman but anyone can be feminists like men and women, girl and boy. This term also can be called as a feminist movement. This movement and feminists are demand men and women all are equal without any kind of boundary. Feminists appeal for equality and freedom for women. The feminist critic wants to explain gape the gender gap, men are superior to women. We found huge gender gap among man and woman. This movement is known women’s liberation movement, and women’s right to vote.
The first feminist book was ‘A vindication of the right of women’ by Mary Wollstonecraft. The term feminism is adopted world widely and socially also. Feminism is “The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes. And another one is organized activity on behalf of women’s rights and interest. This term was first used in 1895.” (According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary) At some point feminism have not any ‘fundamental definition’, it is in very wilder sense. It draws attention to women’s issues in men mad society. In short reading of any kind of book with perspective of women is known as feminist reading of the book.
·      Feminism in Virginia’s other work. (her quotation) 
Generally in Virginia Woolf book we found intellectual commitment to political, social, economic and feminist principles. She writes about suffering of women in patriarchal culture especially British patriarchy. Virginia found that omitted by men from being the maker of these masterpieces, so she created for women a female liberation in “A room of one’s own” (1929). In her short story “A society” (1920), she write about a group of women who join together to investigate the masculine world. She was very famous, active and interested writer of feminist question. She portrayed different type of women in various backgrounds. She also gives many interesting quotation in her different books. Like, “Women must have money and room of her own if she is to write fiction” “Once she knows how to read there’s only one thing you can teach her to believe in herself.” “The history of men’s opposition to women’s emancipation is more interesting perhaps than the story of emancipation itself.” “It is fatal to be mam or woman pure and simple: one must be a woman manly or a man womanly.
·      Feminism in To the Lighthouse
When we refer history, we found that women have to straggle for free themselves from the boundary of men, culture and religion. Women try to get space in literature also. In 'To the Lighthouse’ we found two female characters Mrs. Caroline Ramsay and Lily Briscoe. The character of Mrs. Ramsay and Lily Briscoe portray these demanding roles. Both are totally differing from each other(Pinkney).
·      Character of Lily Briscoe
Lily was guest at Ramsay family’s summer house. She is single; she is in her thirty-three. She is painter and free minded woman. She played role as a truly liberated female artist. Lily is representative of pure feminist woman who change male dominated society to get (achieve) a sense of individuality. She wants to live her life alone. In the novel we found that Charles Tensely who says that ‘women cannot write and women cannot paint’ Lily tries to prove that woman can paint. Through write this novel Virginia proves that woman can write and through creating the character of Lily Briscoe she prove that woman can paint. Lily finished painting at the end of the novel, she demonstrate herself as a truly liberated female artist. Lily was rule breaker, she has desire to stay away from conventional female culture norms and stereotypes of male dominated society. Lily maintain her status as medal age young woman, who valued artistic achievement over the prospect of marriage, it is difficult to maintain. The burden to conform to specific female gender roles weighs heavily upon her conscious: “Even while looked at the mass, at the line, at the color, at Mrs. Ramsay sitting in the window with the James, she kept a feeler on her surroundings lest someone should creep up and suddenly she would find her picture looked at(Feminism in To the lighthouse essays).”

          Lily faces many problems and suffers from a typical male dominated society, her desire to pursue art or painting as a vocation because she is woman, and we found male prejudice upon woman. In novel we found that she peak paintbrush instead of needle. She was aware about gender stereotypes. Lily doesn’t marry in her life. Lily has confident on her art and painting. In this novel Lily’s art is essentially metaphorical a radical political statement of feminism ideals. Lily is unable to obtain an empowering sense of female liberation. Lily finished the painting at the end of the novel; the first section emphasizes sense of self as an artist and as a woman living in world ruled by men. In the novel she is outsider of the family. Lily drowns a painting of Mrs. Ramsay sitting in the openly transparent window of the cottage with James, her youngest son and doing knitting. They both have their portrait painted by Lily, looking at them through the window from position outside on the law(Feminism in To the lighthouse essays).
          Here we can says that Virginia create character of Lily as young woman and free woman with art of painting. At one point Lily’s painting is actually painted by Virginia herself. When we look at painting what we found in painting, is the framing of the other woman. In painting what Mrs. Ramsay is doing? She doing very typical household work like, taking care of James and knitting. We can say that Virginia cannot give free spas to Mrs. Ramsay, even in painting also. In this novel we found clash of gender ideologies much of the novel and Virginia emphasizes a subversion of traditional female gender roles through character of Lily Briscoe. In novel we found struggle to obtain and assert female autonomy is constantly threatened or undermined by a society built upon patriarchy or male dominated society.
·      Character of Mrs. Ramsay 

Mrs. Caroline Ramsay is very beautiful, charming and nurturing character. She is loving and caring wife of Mr. Ramsay. She is thread of Ramsay family; she holds all Ramsay family together. In novel we found that she is like very typical Indian woman, who wake up early in the morning, go into kitchen, make breakfast for family member. She like to decorating dining table. She used to serving delicious food to family member and guest also, she believes in hospitality. She wants to remain present in mind of family member. In chapter-1 she is alive, but even in chapter-2 after her death Mrs. Ramsay remain central character. Everybody in family remembers (miss) her a lot through the novel. In the chapter -3 we found that Lily revisited her memories related with Mrs. Ramsay, and makes harmony with her ghost (memory). She recalls what Mrs. Ramsay tall her about marriage and she also remember her one sentence, ‘close the door and open the window’.
          We found that Mrs. Ramsay is character, who is constantly present not only as worldly presence but also in the mind of the family members. She takes all responsibility of family. In novel we found that when she asked for money from Mr. Ramsay ask her question. She is not economically free woman; she must have to give falsify or record of the money, sometime he refuse to give. But she cannot give counterpoint to her husband; she is perfect housewife or homemaker. It is very difficult to maintain both husband and her son James. Sometime James became angry that his mother cannot give attention to him, she only talk and love my father.
·      Conclusion
There is so many things related with feminism are found in novel, this is only fling view of it. We also found Virginia try to connect Greek mythology in the book. In Greek goddess are in center. Here we compare character of Mrs. Ramsay with three Greek mythical characters like Rhea, Demeter and Persephone. Mrs. Ramsay is symbol of female principal in her life. Many women in novel either or silently subvert conventional female gender roles. We found that the three daughter of Mrs. Ramsay's daughter silently reject the life that their mother chose for her. They want to live their life as Lily live.

Works Cited

Feminism in To the light house essays. 31 December 1969. 31 October 2015 <>.
Pinknry, Makiko Minow. Virginia Woolf and the Problem of the subject. 1. America: Edinburgh Uinivercity press, 2010.

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key terms of Postcolonial studys

Topic: Key Term of Post – Colonialism
Paper: 11
Paper Name: Post – Colonial literature
Name: JasaniNidhi R.
Roll No.: 16
Class: M.A. Sem.3
Year: 2014-2015
P.G. Enrolment No: 14101018
Submitted to: M.K. Bhavnagar University, Department of English

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·    Introduction
What is post- colonialism? Before we understand post- colonialism, we must know about what is colonialism? And what is colonial literature? Colonialism is all about relationship of control and influence over its margins or colonies. These relations are extended to social, pedagogical, economic, political relation between colonies and colonizer. Colonialism is all about study of marginalia. European educated, elite class forming layers between the European nation and the various indigenous people who were controlled. System carried within it inherent notions of racial inferiority and exotic otherness.
          Post colonialism is come after colonialism. It is the main study of effect of colonialism on cultures and society. It’s deal with the how European nations controls the “Third world country” and it’s culture. Post-colonial, as both body and of theory and study of political and cultural change has gone and continues to go through three broad stages:
1)   An initial awareness of the social, psychological, and cultural inferiority enforced by being in a colonized state.
2)   The struggle for ethnic, culture, and political autonomy.
3)   A growing awareness of culture overlap and hybridity.
Post-colonial literature is typical characterized by its opposition to the colonial. Some critic have argued that any literature gives or shows an opposite to colonialism, may be defined as postcolonial. Simon During argues for more inclusive definition, calling it “The need, in nations or groups which have been victim of imperialism to achieve an identity uncontaminated by Universalist or Eurocentric concepts or images(Young).
·       Anti-Colonialism
The term anti-colonialism is an act of political struggle of colonized people against the specific ideology and practice of colonialism. Anti-colonialist movements often expressed themselves in the appropriation and subversion of forms borrowed from the institution of the colonizer and turned back on them. We found discourse of anti- colonial nationalism was focused and demand for an independent postcolonial nation or state. Anti-colonialism associated with an ideology of racial liberation. In the second half of the 20th century anti-colonialism was often articulated in terms of radical, Marxist discourse of liberation, and inconstraction that sought to reconcile the internationalist and anti- elitist demands of Marxism with the nationalist sentiments of the period, in the work and theory or early national liberationist thinkers such as  C.J.R. James, Amilcar Cabral and Frantz Fanon. Anti-colonial frequently perceived resistance to be the product of a fixed and definitive relationship in which colonizer and colonized were in absolute and implacable opposition. Anti-colonialism is related with Marxist.
·     Magical realism
In post-colonial literature we generally found that many writer uses this term in their writing. In this method of literature in describing the imaginary life of indigenous cultures that experience the mythical, magical, and supernatural in decidedly different fashion from western one. In book of Rushdie he uses this magic realism, in his book ‘Midnight’s Children’ he uses this term. It connected with the wonderful, where these two worlds undergo a “closeness or near merging.”
·    Hybridity
It is new transcultural form that arises from cross cultural exchange. It can be social, political, religious, etc. It is not always a peaceful mixture, for it can be contentious and descriptive in its experience. It is cross between two races or two different cultures. There are two definitions as under,
          Catalysis: The experience of several ethnic groups interacting and mixing with each other often in a contentious environment that gives way to new forms of identity and experience.
          Creolization: Societies that arise from a mixture of ethnic and racial mixing to form a new material, psychological and spiritual self-definition(Key terms in post-colonial Theory)
          So, after all we can say it is remix, it means two different things are mixed with each other. For example now a days we are wearing ‘kurta with jeans’ so it is one type of hybridity. We can see it everywhere in fast food, clothes, festivals, marriages, etc.
·     Orientalism
The process by which “the orient” was constructed as an exotic other by European studies and culture. Orientalism is not so much a true study of other cultures as it is broad Western generalization about oriental, Islamic, and/or Asian cultures that tends to erode and ignore their substantial differences.
          It refers to the Orient or East, in contrast to the Occident or West, and often, as seen by the West, often as a form of radical realism. Orient came into English from Middle French orient. Since the 18th century, Orientalist has been the traditional term for a scholar of Oriental studies. In 1978, Edward Said (Palastinian – American) published his influential and controversial book, Orientalism, which “would forever redefine” the word.

The division and classification of human beings by physical and biological characteristics. Race often used by various groups to either maintain power or to stress solidarity. If we can say in simple words so that race is the division, in gujarati we can say ‘Vada’. In our country India we can see different castes for example Brahmin, Kshudra, Vaishy, etc. While in some countries we can find class division and or difference between colors of human beings. For example in animals also we can differentiate that the black cow and white cow. So as same in human beings also color of skin is different. So we can say that difference in human beings are everywhere whether in India, America, Africa, etc. But difference is everywhere. So now let’s know some other term as under,
·     Diaspora
The voluntary enforce or enforced migration of people from their native homelands. Diaspora literature concern with questions of maintaining or altering identity, language, and culture, while in another culture or country.
          The term is derived from Greek word and it means “scattering”. There are many writers who wrote diaspora literature like Salman Rushdie, Sujata Bhatt, JumpaLaheri, etc. These all writers are in home sickness and so they write about their homeland and what they are feeling there. So in this type of literature writer wrote about their country and remembering those days and write poems or any other form of literature about it.
          For example in the movie ‘Swadesh’ we can see that Shahrukh Khan also feel like that and remember his own country. And one song related with it like,

          ‘Ejodesh he teraswadesh he teratuje he pukara…,
          Ejobandhan he jokabhi tut nahisakata, Ejodesh …’
          So in this song also we can feel the feelings of their own country, so it is also like Diaspora literature. And there is another example in movie like ‘Yejavani he Diwani’. In this movie also we can see that the character of Kabir who is also is in this condition. And he is also suffering from homesickness. There is one song related with it as under,
          ‘He fakira man ja, re kabiramanaja…
          Tuti char paivahi, mittikisunaivahi
          Rasta dekhe…’
          So in this song we can understand that how he remembered his country and he feel home sickness.
·      Commonwealth Literature
          Commonwealth literature does not exist by Salman Rushdie but he is one of the key representatives of contemporary commonwealth literature. As a Indian-British novelist, he is world famous for his novel Midnight’s Children (1981) which won the booker prize. Most of his books are set in India and have a particular emphasis on history.
          What is commonwealth? The original phrase “the commonwealth” or “the common weal” comes from the old meaning of “wealth” which is “well-being”. The term literary mean “common well-being”. Commonwealth means British nation and political community founder for the common good. It deals with public welfare. Commonwealth literature has been generally used to refer to the literatures of colonies, former colonies and dependencies of Britain excluding the literature of England, commonly it shows the nationality.
          So, after all we can say that commonwealth literature means master slave relationship. It means inferior nations are in under the powerful nation.

·     Conclusion
          So, after all I want to say that if we understand these all terms so we can easily understand the post-colonial literature. And these all terms are opened our new ideas regarding the literature. And we can find or applying these all terms in literature with its appropriateness. These all terms are like windows in the home through which we get fresh air as same in literature these all terms are like windows through which we can understand literature through new look. So we must have to know these all terms as a student of literature. Otherwise we can’t understand any literature without it.
          So, it’s wonderful experience for me to get understanding about these all terms.

Works Cited

Key terms in post-colonial Theory. n.d.
Young, Robert J c. Postcolonialism (A very short introduction). New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

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Friday, 30 October 2015

My Presentations of Sem-3

Topic; Comparision of Hester with Meera
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comparision between Hester and Meera from nidhijasani

Topic; Absurdity in the play and in the life
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Absurdity in play (waiting for Godot) and Absurdity in life from nidhijasani

Topic;What is Orientalism?
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What is Orieantalism? from nidhijasani

Topic; Role of Institution
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