Monday, 23 March 2015

Rasa Theory

Topic: Rasa Theory and Bhava.
Paper: 7
Paper Name: literary Theory & Criticism: The 20th Western & Indian poetics.
Name: Nidhi Jasani 
Roll No.: 16
Class: M.A. Sem.2
Year: 2014-2015
P.G. Enrolment No:14101018
Submitted to: M.K. Bhavnagar University, Department of English.

Bharatmuni wrote ‘Natyasastra’ in before the third century. The Natyasastra is a compendium of performed arts: drama, music, and dance. The Natyasastra was used through the fifteen hundred years of Sanskrit literature thought as the bedrock of literary theory. To many revivlistic Indian critics last two hundred years, Bharata has been the maker of the Rasa Theory. While there is no  denying that his fascinating insight in the psychology of aesthetic reception was the phenomenal triumph of intellect, it is necessary to remind ourselves that the Natyasastra is notdevoted solely to the exposition of Rasa theory. In other words Bharatmuni’s Natyasastra is an encyclopedia of Sanskrit literature is the earliest work on dramaturgy available at the Natyasastra.
“Natyasastra is the function of fine arts in India.” In Natyasastra he talks about ‘Rasa theory’ and ‘Bhava’, he also talks about the connect of character,languages, prosoding, music employed in drama. Nature of Rasa and Bhava etc… He has given an analytical theory as far as Rasa is a concern.
The Sanskrit Natya theory is the creation of “Rasa.” Every dramatic presentation was aimed at evoking in the mind of the audience a particular kind of aesthetic experience, which is described as “Rasa”, the concept of Rasa is the most important and significant contribution of the Indian mind to aesthetics.

 ‘Bhava’ & ‘Rasa’
“Where the hand goes, the gaze follows. Where the eyes turm, there goes the mind. Where the mind goes, there comes Bhava. And where the Bhava comes, there also will be Rasa.”
Rasa and Bhava are connected with each other. In very first meaning of the Rasa is derived from the root ‘rasah’ it means ‘juice’.
And other meaning of Rasa is ‘interest.’ We also says that Rasa means ‘khato, kharo, turo, tikho, kadvo, mitho, this all are called as rasa in Indian context. The denotative meaning of Rasa is Pleasure (Ananda).Bharatamuni also talks about Rasa.  How we get pleasure from literary works and drama, acting (Abhinaya). Abhinayadevided in to four parts…
 1. AngikAbhinaya - movement or acting through the body, it’s called AngikAbhinaya.
2. VachikAbhinaya–we passed message through speaking words with stress,?!., etc.
3. AhariyaAbhinaya- we shows our identity of character through wearing cloth or costumes.
4. SatvikAbhinaya- 
Through this we can understand and enjoy the drama. This enjoyment createsBhava in our mind. In Natyashastra he writes about three types of Bhava. Hear one Sanskrit shlok mentioned in Bharatmuni’s ‘Natyashastra’ which suggest that all three Bhava combine together and create Rasa in our mind.

Vibhava(determinants or catalysts)
Vibhava means by which an emotion is activated are termed Vibhava. There are two types of Vibhava. 1) The AlambhanaVibhava –the person or the object  in respect of whom the emotion is experienced and who’s appearance is directly responsible for the bringing forth of the emotion. 2) UddipanaVibhava, it means the situation in the environment in which that person or object is placed and which is helpful in intensifying the emotional experience.
The outward manifestations brought forth as a result of the Vibhavas are known as the Anubhavas. These are divisible in to Vacika- those which can be expressed by words (vac-“speech”) and the Angika which are expressed by bodily, expression, In Indian drama. For example, the Anubhava communicate to the audience, the emotions being felt by the characters on stage.
       There also “involuntary emotions” known as Sattvikabhava; Stambha (paralysis), sveta (sweating), Romanca(hair standing on end),Svarabheta, it means changes in one’s tone of voice. Vepathu (terembling.Vaivarnya it means change in the color of one’s face. Asru (becoming tearful) and pralaya, it means fainting.
This Sthayibhava (permanent Mood) is a major emotion which is developed by a number of minor feelings referred to as Vyabhicharibhava.we found there are thirty-three Vyabhicharibhavas: Nirveda (disintrest), Glani (tiredness), Sanaka (apprehension), Asuya (insecurity), Mada (intoxication),Srama (exhaustion ), Alasya (lethargy) , Dainya (pity), Cinta (anxiety), Moho (delusion), Smrti (recollection), Dhriti (steadfastness), Vrida (shame), Capalata (impulsiveness), Harasa (suddendelight), Avega (excitement), Jadata (stupor), Grava (arrogance), Visada (depression), Autsuka (longing)  Nindra (sleep), Apusmara (epilepsy), Supta (dreaming), Vibodha (awakening), Amarsa (restrained anger), Avahittha (deception), Ugrata (ferociousness), Mati (analysis), Vyadhi (sickness), Unmada (temporary insanity), Marana (death), Trasa (panic) and Vitarka (argumentiveness).
          For example, the erotic Rasa arises from the AlambhanaVibhava-presence of the lover and beloved, the UddipanaVibhava’s – the atmosphere of place where the two meet, the call of night birds; a gentle breeze, the moon, etc.: it gives rise to the Anubhavas-how the lovers express themselves to each other to holding hands and produces involuntary bodily responses (the Sattvikabhavas) and may give rise to complementary or transitory emotional states- the Vyabicharibhavas.
          It means for Bharata Rasa-the flavor or taste, emerges from the combination of the various emotional factors in the same way that distinctive taste of a cooked dish it is made from the different ingredients and the manner in which it is prepared. But when we eat the food, we enjoyed it with all ingredients. We cannot say that I eat only flour or only salt, but we enjoy combination of all ingredients not a particular ingredient. Same in Rasa theory a particular Bhava can’t provoke Rasa. But the mixture of all kind of Bhava provokes Rasa in our mind. Through the Bhava we come to know and understand about Rasa. ‘Beauty is always in completeness.’Bhava has no language, it comes from our mind.
“Our emotion is the gastric juice which transform world of appearance into the more intimate of sentiments. On the other hand this world has its own juices, and quality which excite our emotional activities. This is called in our Sanskrit Rhetoric, Rasa, which signifies outer juices having their response in inner juices of our emotions. And a poem, according to it, is a sentence or sentaining juice, which stimulate the juice of emotion, it brings to us ideas vitalized by feelings, ready to be made into the life-style of nature”
-         Rabindranath Tagore
Types of Rasa
According to Bharata’sNatyashastra there is eight fundamental feeling or mental states referred to as Sthayibhavas which can be experienced by human beings. These are Delight (Riti) laughter (Hasya), Sorrow (Shoka), Anger (Krodha), Heroism (Utsaha), Fear (Bhaya), Disgust (Jugupsa), and Wonder (Vismaya).
          Corresponding to these mental states are eight Rasa:
(1)           The Erotic - (Srungara)
(2)           The comic – (Hasya)
(3)           The Pathetic – (kruna)
(4)           The Furious – (Raudra)
(5)           The Heroic – (Vira)
(6)           The Terrible – (Bhayanaka)
(7)           The Odious – (Bibhatasa)
(8)           Marvelous – (Adbhuta)
(9)           Peaceful – (Shanta)        (it was later added.)
The realization of Rasa is said to result from the union of three interrelated elements-Vibhava, Anubhava and Vyabicharibhava and also the permanent mood called Sthayibhava.

(1)   The  Erotic Sentiment (Shringara Rasa)
The Sringara Rasa proceeds from the dominant state of love and is associated with the Lord Vishnu. The mutual affection of love is found not only between man and woman but also between birds, animals and the other entire creature. The Erotic Sentiment in union arises from determinates like pleasure of the season the enjoyment of Garlands the company of beloved persons, objects etc…
          It should be represented on the stage by the consequents such as clever movement of eyes, eyebrows, soft and delicate movement of the body, sweet word and similar other things.
          KaviKalidasa in his AbhigyanaShakuntalam , the scene of union of Shakuntala and Dushiant at that time he write the best example of Sringara Rasa.
“Sringara is reach in pleasure, associated with desired object favorable music and poetry and is related with either the union or the separation of man and woman.
(2)   The Comic Sentiment (Hasya Rasa)
Humor is extremely difficult to analyze even he 20th century philosophers who have set out to examine the origin of this manifold humor. But the nature of its charm has not yet arrived at definite conclusion. While talk about humor Bharatamuni says that,
        “The Humor arises from the grotesque and custom of others, shameless character craze for sensual; pleasure, mischief, foul words. Physical handicapped accusation of others and the like.”
        When a person make laughter on himself or laughter related to his or her own self its cold self-centered laughter.
        Centered – in – others is other form of laughter. When a person makes laughter on other person.In this there are six types of laughter.
(1)           Slight smile  (smita)
(2)           Smile        (hasita)
(3)           Gentle Laughter  (vihasita)
(4)           Laughter of Ridicule  (uphasita )
(5)           Valgure Laughter  (aphasita)
(6)           Excessive laughter  (atihasita)
The best example of Hasya Rasa is “TarakMahetakaUltaChashma”. It creat big laughter among the audience. It shows both types of laughers.
(3)      The pathetic Sentiment (Karuna Rasa)
The pathetic sentiment arises from the dominant state of sorrow. It is usually   presented through the separation from dear one, loose of wealth, death, accident or any type of misfortune. All this represent on stage by the means of consequents.
We found some best examples of Krun Rasa. In Abhigyanshakuntalam the separation of Shakuntala and Dhushiant due to cruse, it generates pathos. We also find same types of pathos in Romeo and Juliet, the death of Juliet create Karuna Rasa. According to shreekantaiya,
“Pathos is the very delicate Rasa, during its experience the heart melts a great deal.”
(4)  Furious Sentiment  (Rudra Rasa)
             “The Furious Sentiment is created by strayking cutting mutilation and piercing in fights and Tamalt of
The beltle and the like.”
Many critiques say that the furious Sentiment is full of conflict of arms, and in it words movements and deeds are terrible and tearful. Transitory states connected with the furious sentiment are presence of mind determinations energy indignation perception.
(5)      The Heroic Sentiment  (Vir Rasa)
According to critique Heroic sentiment is,
“The special condition such as energy, perseverance, optivison absence of surprise and presence of mind facility the NishpattihiVira Rasa”
The Heroic sentiment reflects to the superior type of person and has energy or enthusiasm has its basis. The presiding deities of the sentiments areIndra and represented with the color ‘yellowish or orange, mixture of both color’.
             Theatrically the Virarasa is represented on the stage through firmness passions, heroism, charity diplomacy and the like. Bharatamuni in Natyashastra, he divided the Rasa of velour in to three kinds,
(1)           Valor of Munificence  (Danvira)
(2)           Valor of virtue    (Dharmvira)
(3)           Valor of war   (Yudhavira)
Resent critic have add the fourth type of ‘Valor of Mercy’(Dayavira). The entire valor interrelated with each other. We found, Karana in Mahabharta was called as Danvira.Udhishthira was known Dharmvira. Arjuna was Yudhavira. Shreedamaa was the best example of Dyavira.
(6)  Terrible Sentiment (Bhayanakarasa)
             The Terrible sentiment has its dominant state of fear. Black color refers BhayanakaRas, and it associated with ‘Lord Yamaraja’. It is usually created by fearful atmosphere like Hideous, Noise, side of ghost panic and anxiety due to a timely cry of Jacket.It is to be represented on the stage by consequent such as term ling of the hand and the feet, horribilation, change of color and loss of voice. Ti is very easy to perform the Bhayanaka Rasa on the stage.
             Through rear appear to be one of the nature tendency of man as he grow more civilized try to control in and things it shameful to exhibit it. According to many critics fear is not natural to Nobel character and on contrary what excites fear in ordinary people excites anger in violent.In many horror movies we found Bhayanaka Rasa. When Rama in forest and fight with ‘Rakshasa’ at that time we fell ‘Bhaya’.

(7)      Odious Sentiment (Bibhastya Rasa)
             The Odious sentiments has its basic the dominant state of disguise it is created by determinants like hearing of unpleasant, offensive, impure and harmful things or sing them or discussing them. It is to be represented on the stage by consequent such as stopping the movement of all the limes. Narrowing down of the mouth vomiting.
              In other word Bibhastya is disgust. The emotion evoked by anything that nauseates us, that revolts or sickens us is Bibhastya. When something comes to our notice that is coarse and graceless, beneath human dignity, something which revolts or sickens us it is Bibhatsya that we feel. For example ‘When prince Siddhartha was a young man  and for the first time he sickness, old age and death, he was moved to disgust which later translate in to sorrow, deep introspection and peace, as he transformed into Gautama, the Buddha.”  
(8)        The Marvelous Sentiment (Adabhuta Rasa)
             The marvelous sentiment has its basic dominant state of atonement. The preceding deity of the sentiment is ‘Brahman’. It is created by determinants search as slight of heavenly begins or events attainment of object. In this we found superior mention or temple, and seven storied place and illusory and magical acts.It is to be represented on the stage by consequence such as ‘wide opening of eyes, looking with fixed gas horribilation and tears with joy. Bharatamuni has mentioned this Rasa in his treaties the ‘Natyashastra’ he elaborately states for each its color.
                     “The principle of Rasa is the very soft of Indian poetics. It is the nectar that our thinker has obtained after charning the ossom of poetry.”
             Adbhuta Rasa is acuriosity of man regarding the creation of the world and all its wonders, For example, ‘the glory of a king returning from a successful battle, the magical feats of a god are both adbhutafor a common man.’
(9)  The Peace Sentiment (Shanta rasa)
                  This Rasa is added later after all eight Rasa. Shant is serenity and peace. It represents the state of calm and unruffled repose that is marked simply by the lake of all other Rasa.Because all emotions are absent in Shanta there is controversy whether it is a rasa at all. According to Bharata, the other eight rasa are as proposed originally by Brahma, and the ninth, shanta, is his contribution. It represents complete harmony between the mind, body and the universe. Shanta rasa is what Buddha felt when he was enlightened, when he reached the higher spiritual plane that led him to salvation or nirvana and freed him from the cycle of life and death. We can say that when we go to nature and seat on the green hill site at that time we feel peace, it also called shanta rasa. Shanta is a clear and cloudless state. Shanta is untroubled steadiness. Shanta is the key to eternity.
·     Contribution of Bhatt Lollat in Rasa theory
             In Rasa theory we found four schools (vada) of different critique. First one is Bhatt Lollat.His school known as ‘utpattivad’. He says that there is no Rasa in us, but Rasa should be created in our mind. He says thatwhat Nayak (hero) they create Rasa in our mind. According to him the rasa essentially embodies the emotional state that the work of art seeks to portray. It hopes to evoke a resonant emotion in the audience. He says that feeling(pratiti) of rasa are just knowledge, how it is become joyful (Asvadya)? For example when we see smock we feel (Pratiti) that there is fair. But we cannot feel rasa in sane manner.

·       Contribution of Shree Shankuk in Rasa Theory
             His vada (school) is known as ‘Anumativada’. His school introduce us some failure of BhattaLollat and try to clarify it, though we cannot found proper rasaprakreeya (proses of Rasa). According to him Rasa comes from the imagination (anuman) of the audience. We found four types of imagination 1. ‘yathartha’(as it is) for example he is Rama.2. ‘Sadrushya’ (like) he is similar to Rama.3. ‘Sanshya’ (doubt) he is like Rama. (4) Mithya (false) he is not Rama, first we believe that he is Rama but actually he is not Rama but a person played role of Rama.Same in the picture of Horse, and we cannot says that it is a Horse. We can also say that it is not Horse because it is a picture of horse not a real one. We can say that willing suspension of disbelief.
·       Contribution of BhattaNayaka in Rasa Theory
             His school known as ‘Bhukteevada’. He gives a principal of ‘Sadharanikaran’. He was apposing to above both critique. According to him Rasa is not in Hero but audience has to create it. He says that ‘sadharnikaran’ (commonness) is necessary between   audience and Nata(Hero) for creating Rasa or enjoying the play. Audience and Hero have power of grasping (Bhavn). He put more weigh on sthaibhava and sadharnikaran, and says rasa is not come from Hero,and not from original character. It’s come from the ‘sadharnikarn’ of audience. In essay way the audience, first go through the person Mr. A, who play the role of Rama at this stage he cannot enjoy the play. But slowly people started doing ‘sadharnikaran’ and forget about Mr. A, and think about the original Rama, a people think that Mr. A is an original Rama, and then Rasa is created in the mind of people.Entire proses known as ‘sadharnikaran’.
·      Contribution of Abhinav Gupta in Rasa Theory
Abhinav Gupta was one of the Indian greatest philosophers, mystics and aestheticians. Forthcritique who talks about the Rasa theory, his school known as ‘Abhivyanjnavada’. In his work ‘Abhinavbharti’ he talks about Rasa theory. Inthis work, he writes about the rasasutra of Bharata in consonance with the theory of abhivyakti (expression).He says that when the hero (Nata) and the audience, both forget about their personality, who is he or her at that level they feel 
Rasa and enjoy the play. For example, Mr. A played a role of hero or Rama. When Mr. A forgets that he is Mr. A and enters in to the character of Rama. He thinks that now he is original Rama. Form audience one person knows Mr. A at that time he can’t enjoy the play. But when he accepts Mr. A as a Rama and forgets that he is Mr. A. At this level both Hero and audience really get pleasure form the play.
              We get true meaning of ‘Rasaprakriya’ from Abhinavgupta’s view on Rasa theory.

              After knowing all this, hear we can says that ‘Rasa’ comes from the ‘Bhava’ and Bhava have no language. In short both are connected with each other.“The term ‘rasa’ has a twofold significance: it means the ‘Aesthetic content of literary art’ and also ‘Aesthetic relish’ which the reader-spectator enjoys.”
              The sources of origin of the ‘Rasa’ are the four basic sentiments-‘Erotic’, ‘Furious’, ‘Heroic’, ‘Odious’. The Erotic sentiment is light- green (syama), the comic is described as White, the pathetic is Grey (Kapota) and fearful is (Red), the Heroic is yellow-Red (Gaur), Terrible is Black, the Odious is (Blue) and the Marvelous is yellow. The ‘Erotic’ (sentiment) has Vishnu as Deity, the ‘comic’ is pramaatha, the ‘furious’ is Rudra; the pathetic is Yama, Odious is Mahakala, terrible is Kala, the Heroic is Mahendra and the Marvelous has Brahma as it deity.
              Although the concept of rasa is fundamental to many forms of Indian art including dance, music, musical theater, cinema and literature, the treatment, interpretation, usage and actual performance of a particular Rasa differs greatly between different styles and school of Abhinaya, and the huge regional differences even within one style.


Characteristics of Victorian age

Topic: Characteristics of Victorian age (literature)
Paper: 6
Paper Name: Victorian Literature
Name: Nidhi Jasani  
Roll No.: 16
Class: M.A. Sem.2
Year: 2014-2015
P.G. Enrolment No: 14101018
Submitted to: M.K. Bhavnagar University, Department of English.

Every nation has their own history, as same England has their own history. We found there are so many periods like ‘The Elizabethan age’, ‘The age of Milton’, ‘The Romantic age’, ‘The Victorian age’ and at last ‘The Modern age’ etc. Here I would like to introduce ‘The age of Queen Victoria in detail. The Victorian age started in (1832 to 1887) during the reign of Queen Victoria.            The Victorian age is one of the most remarkable periods in the history of England. It was an era of material influence, political consciousness, democratic reforms, industrial and mechanical progress, scientific advancement, social unrest, educational expansion, empire building and religious uncertainty.The Victorian age was essentially a period of peace and prosperity for England. The few colonial wars that broke out during this period exercised little adverse effects on the national life. The effect of the Crimean War on the nation. In the early year of the age, the effect of the French revolution was still felt, but by the middle of the middle of the century, it had almost completely dwindled and England felt safe from any revolutionary upsurge disturbing the placidity and peaceful existence of its life.  Dwindled and England felt safe from any revolutionary upsurge disturbing the placidity and peaceful existence of its life. In the comparison of other this reign this is a peaceful reign. Englishman secure in their island base could complete the transformation of all aspects of their industrial, commercial and social life without any risks of violent interruptions that gave quite a different quality to the history of continental nations. Peace brought material advancement and industrial progress in the country. Industrial advancement created social unrest and economic distress among the masses. The Industrial Revolution while creating the privileged class of capitalists and mill owners, rolling in wealth and riches, also brought in its wake semi-starved and ill-clad class of laborers and factory workers who were thoroughly dissatisfied with their miserable lot. A new class of landed aristocracy and mill-owners spring up. In that time conditions of life held no charm for laborers and workers in the field, for they were required to dwell in slum areas with on amenities of life attending them at any stage of their miserable existence. In the course of the Victorian era there developed among the increasingly large number of literary men and women and philanthropic social reformers a humanist attitude to life which was not a matter of creed and dogmas, by recognition of the love and loyalty that the better-sensed people had for their unfortunate brethren.

The growing importance of the masses and the large number of factory hands gave a spurt to the ‘Reform Bills’, which heralded the birth of democratic consciousness among the Victorian people. The Victorian age witnessed a conflict between aristocracy and plutocracy on the one hand, and democracy and socialism on the other hand. There was a phenomenal growth in population during the Victorian age. ‘The Oxford Movement’ represents the revival of the old Roman Catholic religion and the authority of the church at the time when science was challenging the religious thought of the age.
           Victorian background will not be complete without adding a few lines about the Victorian Compromise. Victorian compromise was particularly perceptible in three branches of life. In field of political life there was a compromise between democracy and aristocracy, religion and science, rich and poor class people.
Literary Tendencies or Characteristics of The Victorian Literature
           The literary figures of the Victorian age were endowed with marked originality in outlook, character and style. “In Macaulay there was much of the energy and enterprise of the self-made man. Tension loved to sing the praises of sturdy independence. In Dickens’ book there are, perhaps, more originals than in those of any other novelist in the world. The Bronte sisters pursued their lonely path in life with the pride and endurance learnt at the Haworth parsonage. Carlyle and Browning cultivated manner full of eccentricity, and even Thackeray, thought more regular in style than his contemporaries, loved to follow a haphazard path in the conduct of his stories, indulging in unbounded license of comment and digression.”
The discoveries of science have particular effects upon the literature of the age. If we study all the great writers of the age, I will mark five general characteristics.

The Victorian age was essentially the age of prose and novel. We found development of prose and novels on this age. “Thought the age produced many poets, and two who deserve to rank among the greatest,” says W.J. Long, “nevertheless this is emphatically an age of prose and novel. The novel in this age fills a place which the drama held in the day of Elizabeth; and never before, in any age, or language, has the novel appeared in such numbers and in such perfection.”
           Literature of this age tends to come closer to daily life which reflects its practical problems and interests. It becomes a powerful instrument for human progress. Socially and economically, Industrialism was on the rise and various reform movements like emancipation, child labor, women’s rights, and evolution.
We found that there is no progress of ‘drama’ in the Victorian age. Victorian writer put weight only on prose and novel. We can see that many writer write novels and other but we rarely found a person write drama or play.
Moral Purpose
Victorian literature in its varied aspects was marked by a deep moral note. “the second marked characteristic of the age is that literature, both in prose and poetry, seems to depart from the purely artistic standard of art’s sake and to be actuated by a definite moral purpose.” Tennyson, Browning, Carlyle, Ruskin were primarily interested in their message to their countrymen. They were teacher of England and were inspired by a conscious moral purpose to uplift and instruct their fellow man. Behind the fun and sentiment of Dickens, the social miniatures of Thackeray, the psychological studies of George Eliot, lay hidden a definite moral purpose to sweep away error and to bring out vividly in unmistakable terms the underlying truth of human life. We found good example in ‘The Mill on the Floss’ by Eliot. We found many of the writers write about family and morality in their literary work.
           The Victorian literature seems to deviate from “art for art’s sake” and asserts its moral purpose. Many of the writer gives the moral message to the world.
The literature of the Victorian age was correlated to the social and political life of the age. The Victorian literary artists, living aside a few votaries of art for art’s sake represented by the Pre-Raphaelite school of poets, were inspired by a social zeal to represent the problem of their own age.
            Perhaps for this reason the Victorian literature is the literature of ‘realism’ rather than of romance, not the realism of Zola and Ibsen, but a deeper realism which strives to tell the whole truth, showing moral and physical diseases as they are, but holding up health and hope as the moral conditions of humanity. Literature became an instrument of social reform and social propaganda and it was marked with purposeful, propagandistic and didactic aims.
         The Victorian literature is full of realism. We can say that Oliver twist is a realistic character; in Victorian age we found there is child labor in workhouse. So it called realism, and in Frankenstein there is no real character like monster in real life, but we found character like Oliver in real life. So the Victorian literature represents realism. There is no imaginative character in the literature. In Victorian literature we found realistic character rather than romantic character.
A note of pessimism, doubt and despair runs through Victorian literature and is noticed especially in the poetry of Matthew Arnold and Arthur Hugh Clough. Though a note of pessimism runs through the literature of the age, it cannot be dubbed as a literature of bleak pessimism and dark despair. A note of idealism and optimism is also struck by poets like Browning and prose writers like Ruskin. Rabbi Ben Ezra brings out the courageous optimism of the age. Stedman’s Victorian Anthology is, on the whole, a most inspiring book of poetry. Great essayists like Macaulay, Carlyle, Ruskin, and great novelists like Dickens, Thackeray and George Eliot inspire us with their faith in humanity and uplift us by their buoyancy and large charity.
                    The literature of the age is considerably modified by the impact of science. “It is the scientific spirit, and all that the scientific spirit  implied, its certain doubt, its care for minuteness and truth of observation, its growing interest in social processes, and the conditions under which life is lived that is the central fact in Victorian literature.”
           The questioning spirit in lough, the pessimism of James Thomson, the melancholy of Matthew Arnold, the fatalism of Fitzgerald, are all the outcome of the skeptical tendencies evoked by scientific research. Tennyson’s poetry is also considerably influenced by the advancement of science in the age, and the undertones of scientific researchers can be heard in ‘In Memoriam’.
A note of patriotism runs through Victorian literature. Tennyson, Dickens and Disraeli are inspired by a national pride and a sense of greatness in their country’s superiority over nations. Tennyson strikes the patriotic note in the following lines
                              It is the land that freemen till
                              That sober-suited freedom chose
                              A land of settled government,
                              A land of just and old renown,
                              Where freedom slowly broadens down
                              From precedent to precedent.
In one direction the literature of the Victorian age achieved a salient and momentous advance over the lecture of the Romantic Revival. The poets of the Romantic were interested in nature, in the past, and in a lesser degree in art, but they were not intensively interested in men and women.
           To Wordsworth the dalesmen of the lakes were a part of the scenery they moved in. He treated human being as natural objects and divested them of the complexities and passions of life as it is lived. The Victorian poets and novelists laid emphasis on men and women and imparted to them the same warmth and glow which the Romantic poets had given to nature. “The Victorian age extended to the complexities of human life, the imaginative sensibility which its predecessor had brought to bear on nature and history. The Victorian poets and novelists added humanity to nature and art as the subject matter of literature.”
                    We can say that in the literature the effect of patriotism. The writer focuses on national identity and patriotism in Victorian age.
Some other characteristics of this age
We found some other minor characteristics of Victorian age. A few literary artists of this age struck the note of revolt against
The Materialistic tendencies of the age, and sought to seek refuge in the overcharged atmosphere of the Middle escapist note is also perceptible in the Victorian literature, and this is particularly noticed in the works of the pre-Raphaelite poets. Morris busied himself in its legends and sagas. “There were some minor reversions to classicism, but taken largely, literature of the age continued to be romantic, in the novelty and variety of it’s from, in its search after undiscovered springs of truth and beauty, in its emotional and imaginative intensity.”
           Idealism is often considered as an age of doubt and pessimism. The influence of science is felt here. The whole age seems to be caught in the conception of man in relation to the universe with the idea of evolution.
           Though, the age is characterized as practical and materialistic, most of the writers exalt a purely ideal life. It is an idealistic age where the great ideals like truth, justice, love, brotherhood, are emphasized by poets, essayists and novelists of the age.
           Thus, we can say that this is the age which is completely different than the age of Romanticism. It is the age of morality, realism, industrial development, patriotism, pessimism and development of prose and novels. That’s why the Victorian literature is the literature of realism rather than romance like Oliver Twist, Mill on the floss, Middlemarch, In Memoriam, etc. The literature of the Victorian age, in spite of its insistence on rationality, and an order born out of reason, could not completely cut off from the main springs of Romanticism. So after understanding these all characteristics we can easily understand the Victorian age.